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Imbalanced Microbiotas and Derived Disorders


The human microbiota corresponds to the set of microorganisms that have colonized your body and with which it coexists: mainly bacteria, but also viruses, fungi, yeasts, and protozoa. Its composition differs depending on the colonized surfaces: we distinguish the skin microbiota, vaginal microbiota, urinary microbiota, respiratory microbiota, ocular microbiota, ear-nose-throat (ENT) microbiota, and the intestinal microbiota, which was previously called intestinal flora and is by far the most important with its 100 trillion microorganisms.

Ancla 1


The human body hosts in its various parts (intestine, skin, vagina, etc.) groups of living microorganisms - bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, etc. - called microbiotas that, when in balance, help us maintain good health. However, when this balance is disrupted (we then speak of "dysbiosis"), it can be associated with different types of disorders depending on the location of the affected microbiota. For example, gastroenteritis, Crohn's disease, some gastrointestinal cancers, but also depression, diabetes, cancer, obesity, some allergies, or even skin diseases like eczema, could be linked to microbiota imbalances. Let's explore the relationship between microbiota and health!


The composition of a microbiota is characterized by its diversity (the number of different species present in an individual) and its richness (the total number of microorganisms present). When this composition is altered (a modification of either of these two factors), the balance is disrupted, giving rise to dysbiosis, which may be associated with various diseases, without us knowing for sure whether it is a cause or consequence of them. So, what came first, the chicken or the egg? Science has not been able to answer this question yet.







Taking medication (antibiotics, etc.)

without a medical prescription.



Alcohol consumption

and tobacco use






Bacterial, viral,

or parasitic infections.



Sudden change

in environment

and diet.


Hombre haciendo análisis de sangre

Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease related to an abnormality in the production or use of insulin, which is the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. Among the environmental factors involved, the intestinal microbiota is mentioned.


Liver diseases

Highly implicated in the development of certain liver diseases, the intestinal microbiota could become a significant therapeutic target. Alcohol and obesity are responsible for liver diseases.



Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease, which can be serious if left uncontrolled. Like other diseases, the lack of diversity in the microbiota could favor its development.


Gastrointestinal issues

Functional bowel disorders (FDI), the most common intestinal condition, are a set of chronic digestive symptoms that are not associated with any detectable anatomical abnormality.


Infectious gastroenteritis

Infectious gastroenteritis, a leading cause of mortality in developing countries, is generally benign and often viral in Western countries. In addition to the usual hygiene measures, probiotics could be useful for your treatment.


Vaginal candidiasis

Vaginal candidiasis is a common infection in women. The imbalance of the vaginal microbiota could cause its appearance. In general, the fungi involved are from the Candida family.


Respiratory infections

Fever, bronchitis, tonsillitis, etc. It is difficult to get through the winter without being affected by one of these respiratory infections. Preventively, treatments with probiotics would stimulate immune defenses.

Image by Diego Geraldi

Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease, whose causes are still unknown, still has no effective treatment. However, the role played by the intestinal microbiota is hypothesized, raising hope for new therapeutic perspectives.

Image by Alexander Krivitskiy


It is a pathology shared by many people. Some anxiety disorders may be related to the activity of the intestinal microbiota in regulating stress hormones. The detection of the role played by the microbiota in anxiety disorders provides new clues for their treatment.

Image by Robina Weermeijer


Atherosclerosis is characterized by an accumulation of fatty bodies in the wall of the arteries, which can cause anything from simple narrowing to total blockage of blood vessels. The new prevention routes plan to focus on diet and intestinal flora. 

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Lupus, also known as systemic lupus erythematosus or disseminated lupus, is an autoimmune disease. The intestinal microbiota could be implicated in this disorder.

Image by National Cancer Institute


The relationship between microbiota, excess iron in the colon, and its impact on our health. An excess of iron in the colon plays a proinflammatory role, increasing the vulnerability of the intestine and the possibility of colonization by pathogens.

Midiendo la cintura


Characterized by an increase in adipose tissue, obesity has an impact on health and life expectancy. Modifications in the composition of the intestinal microbiota are observed in obese patients.

Ensalada tartar de atún

Food allergies

Food allergies, a constantly evolving phenomenon, remain difficult to treat. But the discovery of the importance of the microbiota in its development has allowed the introduction of new treatments. 



Allergic eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a skin disease that combines skin dryness and itching. This non-contagious dermatosis is favored by a predisposition to allergies in which the microbiota would play an important role.


Traveler's diarrhea

Traveler's diarrhea, generally benign, is one of the most common infections of bacterial origin that temporarily alters the intestinal microbiota.


Stomach cancer

Colorectal cancer and stomach cancer are two digestive cancers in whose origin the intestinal microbiota undoubtedly plays an essential role. 


Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis reflects an imbalance in the vaginal bacterial flora in which different pathogens may be involved. Treatment with probiotics has been evaluated, especially for the prevention of relapses.

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Prostatitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate. It can have an infectious origin in the case of acute inflammation: in general, the bacteria that causes it is Escherichia coli. Chronic cases would imply an imbalance of the urinary microbiota.

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Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in France. It progressively destroys brain neurons that produce dopamine. Its relationship with a disturbance of the intestinal microbiota has been demonstrated.

Sesión de psicólogo

Mood State

Depression and bipolar disorders signal a mood disorder. Along with classic psychiatric treatments, research is being carried out to evaluate the impact of the intestinal microbiota on these disorders.

Image by camilo jimenez

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease encompasses a set of problems caused by insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

Image by Megan Bagshaw


Acne, a very common skin disease during adolescence, is caused by hormonal changes associated with an imbalance in the cutaneous microbiota in favor of a bacterium, Propionibacterium acnes.

Image by Angélica Echeverry


The microbiota plays a role in the absorption and utilization of essential minerals for thyroid function: iodine, selenium, zinc, and iron are the most important ones in this regard.

Cocina saludable

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome groups together a set of metabolic disorders related to obesity, such as hypertriglyceridemia or hypertension, which multiply the risk of diabetes.


Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is a respiratory pathology caused by an abnormal and excessive immune response of the body when it detects a foreign substance or to which it has become sensitive. It is related to dysbiosis...

Pila de píldoras


Antibiotics can cause diarrhea during treatment or for two months after it ends. This post-antibiotic diarrhea, which is generally benign, can sometimes hide a serious intestinal infection. 



Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. These diseases have no impact on life expectancy but alter quality of life significantly. There are treatment plans whose objective is to focus on the microbiota.


Celiac disease

Celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disease due to gluten intolerance. There are different factors at play, including an imbalance in the intestinal flora.


Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a rare genetic disease that manifests itself especially through severe respiratory and digestive problems. There would be a link between your symptoms and the intestinal microbiota.

Mujer en dolor


Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder that is generally caused by a urinary infection. The Escherichia coli bacteria, coming from the intestine, is the main culprit. Women are affected much more than men.

Niño, en, guardería


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designate a group of neurobiological diseases that alter social interactions. They could be of gastrointestinal origin.

Image by Adrian Swancar


It is suspected that in schizophrenia there is chronic inflammation at the brain level.  Alterations of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system could be involved.

Mujer en jardín

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory and chronic joint disease that affects multiple joints at once. One of its possible causes is the interaction of the intestinal flora with a specific genetic predisposition.

Image by Timothy Dykes


Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease caused by an overly rapid turnover of skin cells. Genetic predisposition related to various factors, including an imbalance in the microbiota, contributes to its onset.

Image by Bermix Studio

Covid 19

The virus responsible for COVID-19 is highly transmissible through droplets and aerosols, and it can lead to severe pneumonia, although a significant portion of people who contract it experience mild symptoms or remain asymptomatic


Great news! When the balance of a microbiota falters, it is possible to restore it by acting on its composition (richness, diversity). This is what we know as "modulation." Specifically, we can act in several ways:

By adopting a balanced diet: low in fats and sugars, rich in fiber and foods like artichoke, garlic, onion (source of prebiotics), as well as the consumption of ferments that are a source of probiotics.

Through the intake of:

  • Probiotics

  • Prebiotics

  • Synbiotics (combination of the above)

  • Diet

According to the WHO, "probiotics are live microorganisms that, if administered in adequate amounts, have beneficial health effects." They are naturally present in certain foods and are also available in the form of medications and food supplements. Their function is to contribute to pampering our microbiotas or correcting their imbalance (dysbiosis), safely.

Prebiotics are non-digestible dietary fibers that selectively stimulate, at the colon level, the growth of beneficial bacteria of the host's microbiota, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. In short, prebiotics are the food of probiotics.

Synbiotics are products that contain both prebiotics and probiotics, and their aim is to restore and/or maintain the good health of the intestinal microbiota.

Just as our intestinal microbiota is determined by genes and the environment we live in, it is also modulated by our diet. The diversity and quality of our diet influence the balance of the intestinal microbiota... and, undoubtedly, also contribute to our state of health.

The intestinal microbiota develops progressively from birth. Various elements will influence its composition, particularly the nature of the milk consumed by the newborn. Babies breastfed with mother's milk have a microbial flora different from that of bottle-fed babies; and, although specialists prefer mother's milk, infant formulas, enriched with prebiotics and probiotics, have particularly interesting nutritional qualities for the ecosystem of the intestinal microbiota.

probiotics and prebiotics
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